Military and police protective equipment is used to protect the deadly damage of the bullet or shrapnel to the human body, and reduce and control the damage to the human chest, head, and abdomen in a certain depression.
Three generations of modern bulletproof clothing have appeared: the first generation is a hard body bulletproof clothing, mainly using special steel, aluminum and other metals as bulletproof materials. The second generation of body armor is soft body armor, which is usually made of multilayer high-performance fiber fabrics such as Kevlar. The third-generation body armor is a composite body armor. Generally, lightweight ceramic sheets are used as the outer layer, and high-performance fiber fabrics such as Kevlar are used as the inner layer, which is the main development direction of bulletproof clothing.
In the 21st century, protective equipment such as bullet-proof jackets, bullet-proof helmets, bullet-proof vehicles, bullet-proof wires, and bullet-proof glass are developing at a high speed. The editors of the latest collection of the latest bullet-proof equipment and bullet-proof materials and the latest scientific research technologies and achievements are shared with you.
The picture shows an American soldier wearing a body armor
The British "New Scientist" website published an article by David Hambrin entitled "Bulletproof battery is expected to become the material of bulletproof clothing" on May 24.
Gabriel Fait, an expert at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States, said: "On the battlefield, an average soldier needs to wear about 9 kilograms of body armor and 8 kilograms of battery. If you combine two things into one, Can reduce the burden on soldiers. "Feit's team has developed small bullet-proof batteries. They introduced silica nanoparticles into the battery's electrolyte, and the electrolyte hardened when impacted, a phenomenon called "shear thickening."
There is a weak repulsive force between the small particles in the electrolyte. In general, this repulsive force can help different particles to flow freely without interference. However, the strong shock will overwhelm the repulsive force, making the particle board look like a solid, which should be enough to stop a bullet. Adding silica nanoparticles will only increase the total battery weight by about 3%.
The U.S. military already uses wearable battery packs, but those products do not have bullet-proof functions, and even breakage can become a burden because the battery is liable to catch fire, explode, and release toxic gases. The U.S. Air Force hopes to obtain a wearable battery that can prevent pistol shells, and plans to come up with a feasible design next year. This technology can also improve the shock resistance of electric vehicles. Although the tests on small batteries have been successful, Fawitt, an expert at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, said that if you want to scale the battery size, you need to overcome other difficulties. One of the difficulties is the production method: the electrolyte is usually injected into the battery, but this method is not suitable for shear thickening liquids that will harden.
Helen Wilson, an expert at University College London, said: "It is a smart way to use shear thickening liquids as an anti-impact material in electric vehicle batteries." But she also warns that this technology may need to overcome engineering problems. "To further expand the use of this technology and develop a wearable battery with a bulletproof function, it may seem too long."
Boarded CCTV News's first life-saving body armor
The life-saving bulletproof vests worn by the maritime police are screenshots of the CCTV 3d之家 made in Chongqing
In the case of "6 · 01" transnational smuggling of drugs, marine police wearing FDY3R-GTJH05 life-saving bullet-proof vests, despite the danger of falling into the sea and being shot by drug dealers, fought bravely, successfully solved the case, and arrested 12 suspects , Seized 1.5 tons of methamphetamine. During the anti-drug operation, the orange-red life-saving body armor worn by the maritime police came from the company in which the ballistic laboratory is located--Chongqing Shield King Industrial Co., Ltd., located in Laoshan District, Chongqing. From research and development to production, everything is done in Chongqing.
The King of Shields has developed a life-saving bulletproof vest that combines the functions of a bullet-proof vest and a life vest to provide inspectors with more comprehensive and effective security.
"Many of the life jackets we have seen are inflated. The biggest problem with inflatable life jackets is that once they are hit by a bullet, the airbag of the life jacket will be immediately broken and lose the life-saving function. Therefore, we used it on life-saving body armor. The closed-cell foam ensures that the life jacket can still provide sufficient buoyancy for inspectors in the water when it is hit by a bullet. "The life-saving performance of this life-saving body armor also passed the buoyancy, The test of buoyancy loss and buoyancy material performance, the buoyancy is 12㎏, and the buoyancy loss is 3.7%.
So how strong is the bulletproof level of this bulletproof jacket? The bulletproof jacket can prevent the penetration of the 51 type 7.62 ㎜ pistol bullet (lead core bullet) fired by the 79 type light submachine gun. The depth of the impact point is not more than 20㎜.
The life-saving bulletproof clothing organically combines the bullet-proof function and the life-saving function, realizing the dual function of being both bullet-proof and life-saving in water. When law enforcement officers perform tasks on the water, they can not only avoid the danger of drowning after falling into the water, but also prevent the penetration of enemy guns and strengthen their protection of their own safety, so as to better combat the enemy and criminals and safeguard the country's maritime rights and interests. Social Security.
At present, around the military-civilian integration strategy, the King of Shields is developing a lightweight high-grade bullet-proof helmet. The bullet-proof target of this helmet is to prevent the penetration of semi-automatic rifles. At the same time, a high-grade bulletproof inserter is also under development, which will prevent penetration of the Type 95 submachine gun.
The British Ministry of Defence announced recently that the country's research institute is developing a body armor using new ceramics to reduce weight without damaging the ballistic performance, thereby reducing the weight of the British soldiers and improving the battlefield survivability of soldiers.
According to the Ministry of Defense, the new body armor was developed by the British Defence Technology Laboratory. The main material is a newly developed reinforced ceramic. Compared with the metal and other materials used in traditional body armor, this ceramic has a weight and flexibility. Have greater advantages.
With the development of modern weapons and equipment, soldiers 'individual equipment is constantly increasing, which has led to a gradual increase in individual soldiers' load. Previous studies have shown that soldiers equipped with ceramic bullet-proof vests reduce their load by 35 percent, which not only improves comfort, but also makes soldiers more flexible on the battlefield.
The Ministry of Defense said that the project has lasted 4 years, and researchers are now preparing to conduct hardness tests and live-fire tests on the new body armor.
The United Kingdom is currently leveraging the strength of industry and academia to promote the application of many innovative technologies in the field of defense. It has previously cooperated with the United States to test technologies such as automatic queue travel for large unmanned military trucks in the field.
Recently, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology soldier nanotechnology research institute have announced that polyurethane urea (PUU) polymers have many benefits. This polymer is "15 times stronger than steel, but as soft as a fabric."
Its super strength is impressive, but its softness is a sharp tool to distinguish it from general military body armor. General military body armor is very bulky because of its built-in hard ceramic and metal plates. In contrast, a PUU is similar to a chain mail fiber network, which can deform when subjected to an impact and then return to its original thickness. For example, it can absorb the impact of a 7.62mm caliber bullet fired by an AK-47 assault rifle without damage. Alex Hsieh of the Army Research Lab said in a statement that the PUU material "actually" recovers itself after being impacted. "
The unique molecular structure of PUU fiber means that it can become stronger when subjected to high-speed impact. This material can change from a rubber-like form to a glass-like form when deformed at high speed. In layman's terms, the greater the impact it receives, the stronger it becomes. It is similar to the "bullet bag" designed by a US Air Force Academy student in May 2017.
Researchers at the US Army and MIT are also studying the properties and limitations of this new material. Its potential applications include: transparent masks, bulletproof vests, hand and foot armor, and anti-explosion combat boots. It may be particularly useful in combat helmets because it prevents the impact of bullets on the helmet from causing blunt force damage to the soldier's head. This is a problem that cannot be avoided by even the most robust protective equipment.
PUU polymers are still in testing. However, the U.S. military will eventually speed up the distribution of this stuff to its soldiers.
Army Chief of Staff Mark Millais said that if PUU research continues to produce such amazing results, then this revolutionary body armor may come in handy as soon as possible.
New functional materials are the foundation and precursor of national economic, social development, and national defense construction. They are also the core of the new materials field, and play an important role in promoting and supporting the development of high and new technology. During the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, the new materials technology field of the 863 Program supported the theme project of "new key materials with special functions". Recently, the High-tech Department of the Ministry of Science and Technology organized experts in Beijing to check and accept the theme project.
The project carried out the development of production technology for UHV transmission insulating structural parts, the development of production technology of cross-linked polyethylene ultra-high voltage insulation materials, the development of large-scale production technology of high-performance boron carbide ceramics, the development of boron carbide-based nuclear protective materials, and the development of special porous ceramics The research and development of composite materials, the development of key technologies for the industrialization of high-performance copper-clad aluminum conductor materials, and the development and production and application of R & D, formed a series of independent intellectual property rights; developed a series of ultra-high-voltage insulation materials, boron carbide-based protective materials, and copper cladding Aluminum conductor materials, foamed silicon carbide / resin composite materials, and other special functional materials; developed a series of UHV insulation materials, built demonstration structures for UHV DC transmission converter valves, UHV extra large tonnage glass insulators, and composite insulators Production line, the product performance meets the requirements of UHV transmission insulation structural parts; the production line of high-voltage ultra-high voltage cross-linked polyethylene ultra-clean insulation materials has been established, and the materials meet the requirements of 110kV voltage cable applications; boron carbide-based protective materials have been developed, prepared Boron carbide composite bulletproof inserts for the system Body armor; developed foam silicon carbide / resin composite materials, metal-supported porous ceramic catalytic materials, built a new porous ceramic / resin composite material wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant pipeline production line and multi-metal supported porous ceramic catalytic materials demonstration production line; development The copper-clad aluminum conductor material was built, and a series of copper-clad aluminum flat bar and wire demonstration production lines were built.
The implementation of this project is of great significance to improve the technical level of China's power industry and promote the efficient use of advantageous resources.
Researchers demonstrate elasticity of mucus of the eight-eyed eel
Researchers demonstrate elasticity of mucus of the eight-eyed eel
US Navy researchers believe that the mucus produced by the eight-eyed eel may replace Kevlar in the future.
The eight-eyed eel living on the bottom of the sea is also called sticky eel, because it is shaped like an eel and can secrete a mucus substance that can quickly diffuse in water. This mucus can block the gills of predators and help the sticky eel to escape from hunting catch. This peculiar "ultimate punishment" inspired the imagination of naval researchers. If these slimes can be copied, they may replace petrochemical products, such as Kevlar materials used in bullet-proof vests, and become part of the US Navy's arsenal.
A naval research team in Panama City, Florida has successfully copied the material. Work is under way to turn this synthetic slime into a practical product. Researchers say that from a tactical point of view, the ability to dilute and change the properties of water in a matter of seconds is of concern. It may have a wide range of uses such as bullet-proof, fire-fighting, anti-fouling, and diver protection, such as manufacturing special forces' super wetsuits, sprays to prevent shark attacks, and coatings to prevent algae, barnacles and other aquatic organisms from parasitic hulls. Products derived from this slime can also enter the civilian market.
The mechanical properties of the mucus thread of the eight-eye eel are comparable to Kevlar synthetic fibers. Kevlar is often used as a reinforcing agent for rubber products and protective gear.
There are several species of eel, and navy researchers chose Pacific eel to mimic mucus. Eight-eye eel mucus contains two protein components: thread and mucin. Like a spring, a thread can expand rapidly when it meets water, and its volume can reach 10,000 times after expansion. Mucin binds to water and limits the flow of water as the thread spreads. The interaction between the thread, mucin and seawater forms a three-dimensional, viscoelastic network. Mucus strands can be compared with spider silk. Both of these natural, renewable substances may replace petrochemical synthetic products in the future.
Researchers made a synthetic mucus component from the pupa protein of the Pacific eight-eyed eel. In the process of imitation, the researchers grew the protein in E. coli, obtained two proteins through a series of isolation and purification operations, and then synthesized them in a cross-linking solution. Researchers used scanning electron microscopy to compare natural and artificial mucus samples to determine if the mucus was successfully copied. Researchers said it took six months to complete the mucus imitation.
Researchers say no special equipment is required. Many biological researchers have these devices. When not in use, the imitation thread can be placed in a sealed vial and stored in the refrigerator, but it can also maintain stable performance at room temperature. Some experiments on the practicality of this material have begun. His team is currently looking at how to enhance the adhesion of imitation mucus on different surfaces, and how to improve its stability in different environments.
It is too early to predict when this synthetic slime will be used in the navy. But application-specific trials will begin within 6-12 months. Work to mimic this type of mucus was supported by Naval Innovation Science and Engineering (NISE) funding and the Naval Research Agency's Marine Battlefield Sensing Division.
Recently, a new non-metallic helmet of the PLA has suddenly become "extremely hot." Almost everyone is evaluating this kind of helmet that looks very cute, but in fact, the comrade in the photo should have reduced the helmet collar (the new type of helmet is divided into small and large).
The first generation of non-metallic bullet-proof helmets of the People's Liberation Army was a QGF02 helmet that was born in the mid-1990s. One of the original intentions of the design was to provide a beautiful and practical protective helmet for troops stationed in Hong Kong. On the helmet type, QGF02 is equipped with a helmet brim that blocks the rain like the PASGT of the US military.
02Although it is a pioneering work in China's domestic non-metallic bulletproof helmets, its distribution is not very large. Due to the relatively better performance of the QGF03 helmet, 02 is only equipped with troops stationed in Hong Kong and Macao and some special forces. Compared with it, its successor 03 has further optimized the helmet type: the main thing is to shorten the length of the helmet rim, so that it has a better viewing field.
At present, this new type of helmet has been distributed to the Tibetan border defense forces for testing, and it has a high appearance rate in the recent border "control and control exercise". As far as the current feedback from the army is concerned, the performance of this helmet is still "quite good".
Americans invented a new full bulletproof jacket: AFA Bulletproof Jackets.
AFA Bulletproof Jackets go up like ordinary clothes, but it is made of bulletproof Kevlar XP fabric. In the event of a bullet attack, this body armor will "grasp" the bullet with a multi-layer mesh formed by the fabric so that the bullet will not penetrate the body. Its bulletproof level is the same as that of the US law enforcement agencies, and its penetration resistance is even 15% stronger than that of ordinary bulletproof clothing!
In addition, there are three options for this bulletproof vest, which are vest, coat and coat. At present, it is also crowdfunding on foreign crowdfunding websites, and has raised more than 216,000 US dollars, which is more than 1.4 million yuan.
When talking about shields, people usually think of the cold weapon era first, when the enemy and our infantry armed with swords and shields cut. Although the status of the shield is far worse than before, it has not withdrawn from the historical stage. Bulletproof shields are still one of the main combat equipment of special police of various countries and Russian special forces.
Modern bulletproof shields are usually made of ceramic sheets, boron carbide (the third hardest material known in nature, often used to make industrial products such as tank armor and bulletproof clothing), Kevlar and other composite materials. According to weight, it can be divided into three protection levels: light, medium and heavy. Can withstand continuous hits of various automatic weapons from pistols to assault rifles at close range without being penetrated.
The Russian army has a soft spot for individual bulletproof shields, which may be based on its rich (Chechny) street fighting and counter-terrorism experience. Usually, each special task force of the Russian special forces will be equipped with an "assault shield". As the name suggests, "Assault Shields" are usually used to cover friendly forces that attack enemy forces hiding behind houses or bunkers, rushing to the front of the team and covering the entire team.
Recently, the "European Bison" special police unit under the jurisdiction of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs was equipped with a new type of bulletproof shield and bulletproof leggings kit named "Folding Fan 6." The shield weighs 25 kilograms and can withstand multiple consecutive hits of the 7.62mm AK-47 rifle. The shield observation window can withstand multiple hits by bullets fired by revolvers or semi-automatic pistols. The bulletproof leggings weigh 12 kg and have the same level of protection as the viewing window.
According to different needs, bulletproof shields are divided into two types, with and without observation windows. Some heavy-duty bulletproof shields are also equipped with multiple strong flashlights. In addition to being able to illuminate in a dim environment, its other major function is to make enemy soldiers (terrorists) blind for a short time. Some shields are even equipped with speakers for shouting to terrorists. As shown in the figure, "Folding Fan 6" is equipped with 3 strong flashlights, which is a standard configuration. The 25-kilogram "Folding Fan 6" also belongs to a lighter class. The Russian special forces can also hold an assault rifle with a single shield.
The picture shows our army's new generation of integrated protection system for individual soldiers. This system represents the most advanced integrated protection technology for individual soldiers in China and even in the world today. It is reported that the exhibit is the "Central Enterprise In-depth Implementation of Innovation-Driven Development Strategy Achievement Exhibition" held in Beijing recently. 》 The first public appearance of Mourning, of which the new generation of bulletproof clothing system is of particular interest. The performance of the bulletproof clothing is due to the improved active wear tactical protective vest (IOTV), improved modular tactical protective vest (IMTV), and single soldiers of the US military. The board carrying system (SPCS), etc., and the new body armor system with a one-button detachment function, can be quickly replaced on the battlefield, and strengthen the protection of soldiers' shoulders. Military expert Lei Ze told reporters that China ’s research on individual bulletproof vests began in the 1950s and included Type 81, TF90-54, TF90-79, TF95, 2004 bulletproof vests (04B), 06 special forces bulletproof vests, and DS- P6 special body armor, FDY-IR paratrooper body armor, and other types, basically formed a complete function, variety, and better performance system.
It is understood that the new generation of body armor system of our army adopts the new generation of camouflage clothing and new speckled camouflage that will be equipped for the army, and it is specially designed for individual soldiers when they are maneuvering by car. According to experts, the maneuver is based on individual soldiers. Operational requirements require that it is normal for individual soldiers of our army to use built-in armored vehicles to maneuver. This is especially the case when a large number of new mobile rapid-response units are constructed, and all personnel are equipped with light armored vehicles. The impact, penetration and penetration of armor piercing fragments on the body armor has become a new threat. In order to defend against the threat of shrapnel, China's new generation of body armor uses a series of new materials. For example, high-performance polyethylene (HPPE) fiber has the advantages of high rigidity and toughness and light weight (density of 0.97 g / cm).
Another example is the new bulletproof liner made of PBO fiber. Although it has excellent mechanical properties, it uses a fabric made of high-strength fibers to "grasp" bullets or shrapnel to extend the action time of bullets and bullet-proof fabrics, thereby effectively dissipating bullets. The huge energy of the belt is used to achieve the purpose of bulletproof. Recently, in order to improve the bulletproof ability, China has also developed a new type of soft and hard bulletproof clothing. Its bulletproof mechanism can be summarized by "soft and hard", that is, the warhead or fragment is directly ejected through a new ceramic material, while energy is absorbed.
According to foreign media reports, the ancient art of origami continues to inspire people today. Recently, a research team from Brigham Young University (BYU) was inspired by origami and created a new type of bulletproof shield. Mechanical engineering professor Larry Howell and his team learned about the shortcomings of current bulletproof shields after talking with law enforcement and some federal agencies: large and bulky, inconvenient to carry, and outdated. As a result, they created a lighter and more compact bulletproof shield through the skills of origami.
It is understood that the shield consists of 12 layers of Kevlar bulletproof fibers. The entire opening process takes only 5 seconds, and its 55 pounds (25 kg) weighs only about half of the existing bulletproof shield. In addition, it can protect two to Safety for three people.
The research team pointed out that the test was far more successful than they thought. In addition to 9mm, .357 Magnum, it can also block bullets from .44 Magnum pistols.
This shield is still in the prototype stage, and the team will continue to cooperate with law enforcement. In addition, the team also said that the bulletproof shield will have more extensive applications in the future, such as campus security, emergency wounded protection, etc.
TASS reported on December 13 that the general manager of the Russian Central Precision Machinery Manufacturing Research Institute and the "Warrior" R & D company Dmitry Shemitorov introduced in an interview that the second-generation "Warrior" individual combat suit It has never been penetrated by bullets during combat use.
"We have information on the protection of this combat suit in actual use: no breakdown was recorded, whether it is a helmet or a bulletproof vest." He said that this proves that "the" warrior "single Brigade protection systems are currently extremely effective. " Semitorov also said that the third-generation combat suit "Warrior-3" will have the same level of ballistic protection, but lighter.
Semizov said: "In the third generation of" fighters "we use new materials and strive to maintain lighter performance while maintaining lighter weight. According to our assessment, it will reduce 25% to 30%-now fighting The service weight is 24 kg, and the task is to reduce the weight to 20 kg. "Shemitorov pointed out that the" fighter "helmet" may be the best in the world-it weighs only 1 kg with the largest protection area ". He also said: "This allows the 'fighters' to carry more equipment without overloading the neck. The helmet can reduce the impact not only of low impulse (hitting on the head), but also of high impulse-by bullets Or shrapnel hit. "
The protective area of the combat suit bulletproof vest is also one of the largest in the world. The vest baffle can withstand 10 hits of a sniper rifle 10 meters away. Semitorov said that the damage analysis of the baffle after being shot by a sniper rifle showed that the soldiers could continue to fight, although the hitting site would be bruised. Bulletproof vests strengthen the protection of the sides of the body and protect the shoulders, arms and groin from debris. If necessary, use a body cover that covers the entire body to prevent shrapnel damage.
Russian Deputy Defense Minister Yuri Borisov announced earlier that the "Soldier" combat suit had been tested during Syrian combat operations. The Russian armed forces have been equipped with "fighters" since 2016.
Guangdong Shoumenshen Technology Group Co., Ltd.
Jiangsu Shunda Police Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
Jiangxi Great Wall Protective Equipment Industry Co., Ltd.
Jiangsu Tianchen Police Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
Jiangsu Jinan Police Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
Shenzhen Hua Anda Industrial Co., Ltd.
Jiangsu Wuwei Police Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
Jiangsu Ruidun Police Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd.