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The word police in French comes from the ancient Latin "politia", which originally originated from the Greek word "politeia" or "politeia", and later evolved into "polis", which is a word related to the city. In Old French, the word "police" means "management, governance," so for centuries, police has been used as a vocabulary related to the management of city-state public order.

The French police system gradually developed from the division of the Roman Empire, and was mainly divided into police and gendarmerie who also served as soldiers and police. It started as early as the reorganization of Louis IX. In 1254, Louis IX founded the Le Chevalier du Guet to solve security problems. A team of 20 cavalry and 26 infantry was responsible for night security in Paris. Since then, towns in the French kingdom have followed suit. This was the pioneer of modern police decree. From 1667 onwards, the turbulent France experienced the police director founded by Louis XIV, the National Guard of the French Revolution and the National Gendarmerie, and then the imperial police of the Napoleonic period, which developed steadily after 1941.

French organizations modeled on military establishment and produced a national gendarmerie system that intersects with the police. Traditionally defined as "half-military, half-military" force, the gendarmerie is an armed army that performs military discipline picketing tasks to prevent soldiers from committing crimes. On the other hand, it has the characteristics of a "police" and assists or executes completely independently. The function of general administrative police and judicial police to maintain public security has become a powerful force for the French government in maintaining public security.

This article mainly focuses on the current uniforms of the French police agencies and the badges and ranks used with them. Of course, due to the limited level, errors and omissions will inevitably occur. Please forgive the readers.


French police profile

The French police system adopts vertical leadership. The law enforcement agencies are divided into national and local levels. Three national-level law enforcement agencies and French cities and towns have the right to establish their own police. The French Ministry of the Interior establishes the Paris Police Department, and the French National Police provides community police and fire services in the capital Paris. Before the judge enters the inquiry, he fully monitors the criminal investigation case and directs the investigation progress of judicial police officers.

The French government has established three national law enforcement agencies that authorize lawful searches and arrests in French territories around the world: the French National Police, the French National Gendarmerie, and the French General Administration of Customs.

The French National Police, formerly known as the Public Security Department, has police jurisdiction in major cities and urban areas in France; it has about 150,000 employees and is directly under the French Ministry of Interior; the French National Gendarmerie and one of the four branches of the French Army. The national gendarmerie of France, in addition to the military gendarmerie, has the police jurisdiction of French countryside, sub-20,000 population areas and French military facilities; it is directly under the French Ministry of Defence, but is delivered to the French Ministry of Interior for security operations; the French state The gendarmerie has a total of 100,000 posts; the French General Administration of Customs (DGDDI) is responsible for customs duties and is directly under the French Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment; it has about 20,000 employees.

The second level is mainly the city police established in several French cities, but has limited security powers. Any criminal prosecution procedures are handled by the French National Police. In addition, French rural towns and cities can set up Ranger Police to carry out rural environmental protection and limit patrols.

The French Department of Prisons (Direction de l'administration pénitentiaire) has a regional emergency response team-Équipes régionales d'intervention et de sécurité. Wallis and Futuna Islands have local guards and indigenous police.

(1) National Police and National Gendarmerie

The existence of two national law enforcement agencies is in the jurisdictions-urban and rural. Since 1941, the scope of law enforcement by the National Police has been limited to areas with more than 10,000 inhabitants, and the National Gendarmerie has been responsible for police affairs with populations below 10,000 inhabitants. However, due to population growth in urban areas, suburban residential areas have expanded and public services have changed. In addition, it is very controversial when a police force changes its jurisdiction to its sole competitor due to demographic changes. Generally, a team of gendarmerie has a larger jurisdiction than the national police. New measures between 2003 and 2005 will put the National Police in charge of metropolitan police. The gendarmerie performs police in urban and rural areas with a population of less than 20,000. Other countries with national gendarmerie policing also model the French police jurisdiction system, such as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

The national police and the national gendarmerie each have several powers: the national police is responsible for entry and exit control of French territory; the gendarmerie is responsible for French military protection and security; coastal defense and maritime security search and rescue; and the French Republican guards under its border and aircraft security, And large public machine building security.

If the regional national police or the provincial gendarmerie has no experience as a police officer, a judicial police team (police judiciaire) will take over the investigation; and a judicial science laboratory will provide certification services to the army. Although the French National Police conducts most criminal cases, in France, which has a continental law system, the judge responsible for investigating criminal cases has the full power to refer a case to the National Gendarmerie.

Two national law enforcement agencies have special police teams: the national gendarmerie intervention team includes armored and airborne squadrons; the French national police can use a national RAID and 9 regional regional police intervention teams. Both national law enforcement agencies have riot police teams: the national police can use the French Republic's security forces, and the national gendarmerie can use the mobile gendarmerie. The two teams have nationwide crowd management and large-scale search and rescue operations.

(2) French city police

City police are local police in French towns outside the capital. There are 18,000 municipal police in 3,500 communities. The City Police is one of three components of the French Police, National Police and National Gendarmerie, with approximately 145,000 police officers and 98,000 soldiers, respectively.

The municipal police in Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne are under the responsibility of the Paris Police Department, which is part of the National Police.

The French city police is directly authorized by the local mayor, responsible for public security administration, ensuring good order, safety, security and public health, and providing administrative functions, called "police powers from the mayor".

The term "police" refers to maintaining order, but its functions include protecting citizens from disasters and regulating traffic and parking tasks. To this end, municipalities must establish municipal police services under the authority of the mayor for the tasks of local law enforcement regulations.

Introduction to French Police Uniform

In terms of the development and design of police uniforms, France has not spared too much. Its police uniforms look relaxed and friendly to the people, but also reflect the mighty image of the police; both practical and fashionable in police work.

(1) The uniform of the French Federal Police

Unlike the United States, France has a police police force. Its dress style tends to be casual and casual. It looks closer to civilian clothing, and also borrows and references some of the advantages of other industry clothing.

(French federal police spring and autumn uniforms)

(French federal police uniforms, spring and autumn uniforms)

(French federal police uniforms, spring and autumn uniforms)

(2) French Order Maintenance Police

The French Order Maintenance Police (MAINTIEN DE L'ORDRE) is the main force in responding to the gathering of some people on the street. In plural France, some people often gather on the streets in order to express their various personal requirements.

It is the duty of the French police to maintain order at the street scene to grasp its movements and take necessary control measures when it violates the rules. .

France maintains order police, focuses on teamwork, and emphasizes that its uniforms can be quickly identified among street crowds. Therefore, the helmet of the police uniform is provided with a color ring, a colorful cap badge, and an enlarged letter code on the back of the outer jacket.

Another feature is that the French Order Maintenance Police wear boat caps when they are on the street. This way, if the situation changes, the helmet can be directly put on the boat cap, eliminating the need to take off the boat cap and waste unnecessary time for additional placement. Eliminate unnecessary movements, very convenient

(Three) French special police clothing

As in other countries, the French Special Police (CRS) is dispatched in major and complex situations.

Under normal circumstances, French special police agencies generally arrange for some personnel to concentrate on training, arrange some personnel to perform patrol tasks, and arrange some personnel to take vacations.

Once a police task is issued, the police officers who are trained intensively will prepare all the weapons and equipment, carry them, and rush to the scene by car.

Police officers on vacation, or those patrolling in outerwear or casual clothes, will rush to the scene as soon as they receive the notification of the police, meet with the police officers who arrived earlier, wear protective gear at the scene, configure weapons, and then jointly dispose of the police. situation.

Therefore, at the scene, you can see the French special police in civilian clothing, wearing protective equipment, holding weapons.

(Iv) French justice and support for police uniforms

The French Justice and Support Police (POLICE JUDICIAIRE & SCIENTIFIQUE) is mainly engaged in on-site investigations, physical evidence analysis, or support and support tasks such as network, mine clearance, and surface vessel driving.

These police officers work in work clothes for convenience. In order to facilitate identification without affecting the work, a police vest with a police type logo is equipped.

(5) Accessories for French police

The various badges and logos of the French police can effectively indicate the identity of the police and the police. They are often used on bulletproof vests and clothing.

(French police armband)

(French police logo)

(Protective gear of the French police)

(French police jacket)

(French police jacket)

(6) Police uniforms of the French Mounted Police

French riding police (POLICIER A VELO & MOTARD), there are two types of motorcycle riding police and bicycle riding police, the difference is the style and type of clothing and helmet

(7) French police dress

French police dresses (POLICE CEREMONIE) are different and have their own characteristics.

French police ranks and epaulets

The ranks of the French National Police are set according to their duties, and the corresponding ranks correspond to the corresponding ranks. French police ranks are distinct. Its characteristics are: titles of police supervisors and above are linked to corresponding positions and obtained through appointment; ranks below the police supervisor can be obtained through natural promotion in addition to election.

The rank of the French National Police is divided into three levels in addition to the General Supervision and Chief Inspector: Police Superintendent (a total of three levels), Police Officers (a total of three levels), and Police Officers (a total of five levels).

French police ranks and their names from highest to lowest are: Minister of the Interior and Public Safety; Director of the National Police General Director; Directors of the Central Police Central Directorates; National Police Supervisor; National Police Supervisor; Police officer; first-ranking police officer; second-ranking police officer; third-ranking police officer; first-ranking police officer; second-ranking police officer; second-ranking inspector; third-ranking police officer; chief master; police officer; police officer; : First-level inspector, second-level inspector; third-level inspector; detective. The National Police operates mainly in large cities and towns. in this aspect:

It conducts security operations (patrols, traffic control, identity checks) under the order and supervision of investigating judges of the judiciary, conducts criminal investigations, service search warrants, etc .; it maintains specific services for criminal investigations ("criminal police").

According to the French civil service system, the National Police is divided into three troops in ascending order of seniority:

(Management and law enforcement forces) Roughly equivalent to soldiers and non-commissioned officers in the army, or police officers and sheriffs in the British Civil Police.

The Legion (Command) is roughly equivalent to the lower commissioned rank of the army, or the rank of inspectors and chief inspectors of the British Civil Police. If detectives or referees are in uniform, these ranks were previously called inspectors, although CRS officials always use the current rank.

Legion Concept and Direction The Legion is roughly equivalent to the senior rank of an army, or the director and director of a British civilian police force.

All levels of badges can be worn on the shoulder or chest. If it is a badge, it is square. Prior to 1995, there were two civilian personnel ("inspectors" and "investigators"), of which plain-clothed officers were investigated and authorized to conduct investigations. The closest Anglo-American equivalent is a detective.

Country Police Rating

Ranks and emblems of French police

-Garde Champêtre Stagiaire: 1 barrette

-Garde Champêtre Titulaire: 2 barrettes

-Garde Champêtre Principal: 3 barrettes

-Garde Champêtre Chef: 1 barrette

The armband on the right shoulder represents the profession.For example, the two armbands above represent water environmental protection and police dogs.

Various armbands of the village police (the left shoulder is the area identification pattern)

Uniform caps (suit caps and dress caps), caps of village police

French award system and Legion of Honor

The list of French honours and awards presents all the decorations of modern French medals, honors and awards. Some medals can be awarded to soldiers or civilians at the same time, such as the Legion of Honor; others are divided into pure military or civilian awards. After the reform of the honour system in France in 1963, only four of the 19 ministerial medals were preserved, and the others were replaced by the National Medal of Merit.

Medal of the Legion of Honor (French: Légion d'honneur, also translated as the French Medal of Honor), full name of the French National Legion of Honor (French: Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), awarded by the French government Medal of Honor in recognition of soldiers and other people who have made a special contribution to France. Established by Napoleon in 1802, the medallion ribbons are red and are divided into six levels. Convert button to convert to traditional characters.

The highest (special) is Grand Maître (English: Grand Master), "Master of Honor" (also known as "Medal of Honor Medal Necklace" or "France Honor Leadership"), a set of gold Big chain chapter. Only the French head of state was granted. Hyundai only handed it over to the new French president at the inauguration ceremony of the new French president, the guardian of the French Les Invalides, the guardian of the Tomb of Napoleon, to confirm the identity of the new leader. However, the French president usually only uses the stars and seals of the medal of honor, and the big necklace is just a symbol.

The second is Grand-Croix (English: Grand Cross), the "Grand Cross", which is the Dazheng chapter plus star chapter; the only Chinese who won the honor was the former President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek.

The third category is Grand Officier (English: Grand Officer), "Grand Officer", adding a star badge to the knot badge;

The fourth class is Commandeur (English: Commander), "High Knight Medal", which is the collar badge;

The fifth class is Officier (English: Office), "Military Officer's Medal", which is a tied badge;

The sixth class is Chevalier (English: Chevalier), "Knighthood", which is the badge.

Original Medal 1804

The medal was followed by a portrait of Napoleon on the front and white shoulder straps on the back. Crosses and ribbons line the crown.

Cavalier Medallion of 1814 in the Louis XVIII era: the portrait of Henry IV on the front and the lily decoration on the back as a symbol of the Kingdom of France. Crosses and ribbons line the crown.

Cross on the back symbolizing the Republic and the French flag on both sides

Fifth Knight Cavalry

Rosetta

Reverse Grand Cross, awarded to Chiang Kai-shek

Grand Cross

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